Journal of the Korean Society of Clothing and Textiles

Journal of the Korean Society of Clothing and Textiles

Print ISSN 1225-1151

Online ISSN 2234-0793

Regulation for Reference List Preparation


Basic principles

  • References should be written in English.
  • All figures, tables, and literature cited in the text should be listed in the references in alphabetical order.
  • All documents listed in the reference should be cited in the text.
  • The reference list should be formatted with hanging indentation (3 spaces in Hancom Docs; 3 characters in MS Word) with the second and subsequent lines indented by 3 characters from the left-hand margin.
  • Do not use footnotes or endnotes to cite references.
  • References should be listed in alphabetical order of author's last name. Multiple documents of the same author are listed from the oldest to the newest.
  • Italic Use: The book titles and journal titles should be italicized.
  • Unless otherwise specified in this regulation, submissions should comply with the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (APA).

Title notation vs. sentence notation

1. The titles of articles, books, reports, web pages, and other works in the reference list follow the sentence notation (capitalize only the first letter of each sentence) even if the title notation (capitalize the first letter of each word) was applied in the original work.

2. Title elements end with a period. However, if the title ends with a question mark or exclamation mark, these punctuation marks replace the period.

3. Titles of periodicals follow the title notation. The periodical category includes journals, magazines, newspapers, blog posts, etc. If an abbreviation is included in the official title of a periodical, the abbreviation is indicated in the bibliography.

  • Journal: Journal of Experimental Psychology
    Newspaper: The Washington Post
    Abbreviation: PLOS ONE, JAMA Pediatrics

  • English initials of the author's name

    1. There is a space between the initial letters, and in the case of a name connected with a hyphen, a period is included after the first letter, but there is no space.

  • Ai-Jun Xu: Xu, A.-J.

  • 2. If the second element of a hyphenated name is a lowercase letter, it is treated as a single name.

  • Lee-ann Raboso: Raboso, L.

  • 3. Include the hyphenated last name and the two-part last name as presented in the published work.

  • de Onis, C. C. (2017)/ Bar-Sinai, M. (2015)

  • 4. In case of writing the middle name in English: Write both abbreviations of the two letters.

  • Peter, J. P., Olson, J. C., & Grunert, K. G. (1999)

  • 5. How to write English initials of domestic authors

  • Hong, Kildong → Hong, K.
    Hong, Kil-Dong → Hong, K.-D.
    Hong, Kil Dong → Hong, K. D.

  • If the author is a group author

    1. It includes government agencies, academic societies, non-profit organizations, businesses, hospitals, task forces, and research groups.

    2. If only the name of a group is included on the cover or title page (and there is no name), indicate the group author.

    3. Write the full name of the group author completely followed by a period:

  • National Institute of Mental Health.

  • 4. If several layers of government agencies are listed as authors of the work, the most specific agency in the references is used as the author. The name of the parent organization not presented in the group author name is presented as the publisher as a source element.

    5. If there are two group authors, do not separate them with a comma.

  • American Psychological Association & National Institutes of Health

  • 6. If an individual's name is listed on the cover or title page, it is assumed that there is an individual author and indicate the names of individual authors in the reference list.

    If there is no author

    1. If the author is unknown or cannot be reasonably determined, the work is treated as “No author.”

    2. The title of the work is moved to the position of the author before the publication date (in the case of an encyclopedia without an author, the entry(headword) is regarded as a title and moved to the position of the author).

    3. If the word “anonymous” is indicated in the work, use “anonymous” as the author.

    Date notation

    1. Even if the copyright date of the book is different from the publication date, the copyright date on the copyright page of the book is used as the publication date.

    2. In the case of unpublished, unofficially published or work in progress, indicate the year the work was created.

    3. Do not use "in progress" or "submitted for publication" in the date element of the reference list. If a work has been accepted for publication but has not yet been published, use "in press" instead of the year and do not write a date in the reference list until published.

    4. If the work is online prior publication, the year of online prior publication is used in the reference list, and if the work includes both the online prior publication date and the final publication date, the last publication date is included in the reference list.

    How to cite references in the text

    1. When the author’s name is cited in the text

  • 1) One or Two author(s): Include all the author's last name(s). If two or more authors are mentioned in a sentence, they should be linked with 'and' ('&' in the reference list or when cited in parentheses).

    Walker and Johnson (2000) compared the differences …
    … (Smith & Gunless, 1988), …
    According to Kim and Park (2002) …
    … (Im & So, 1987), …

    When quoting in tables and figures, use “&” between names for both parenthesis quotation and sentence quotation (do not use “and”).
    When citing multiple papers by the same author, they are listed in chronological order regardless of the order in the reference list.

    (Carraway et al., 2013, 2014, 2019)

  • 2) If there are more than 3 authors: Write only the name of the lead author and write ‘et al.,’ after the name. However, in references, all authors' names should be listed in the order listed on the title page.

    (Kernis et al., 1993)
    According to Kim et al. (1993) …

  • 3) In the case of different authors, but with the same family name and year of publication: write the abbreviation of the first name together. If the initial of the first name is the same, it is marked as the full first name.

    In the study of M. Kim (2012) ..., in the study of Y. Kim (2012) ...
    (E. Johnson, 2001; L. Johnson, 2001)
    (Paul Janet, 1906; Pierre Janet, 1906)

  • 4) If there are multiple works by the same author in the same year: Divide into (year a) and (year b). Even if there is no year, it is divided into (n.d.-a) and (n.d.-b). When citing both documents with and without a publication year of the same author, those without a year are placed first. "in press" is the last order.

    Kim(2014a), Kim(2014b)
    (Kim, 2008a, 2008b)
    (Sifuentes, n.d.-a, n.d.-b)
    (Department of Veterans Affairs, n.d., 2017, 2017b, 2019)/ Zhou (n.d., 2000, 2016, in press)

  • 5) When two references have three or more authors, the first author is the same person, but the second and subsequent authors are different, and published on the same year: Mention the author's last name until a name that can distinguish the two papers and then attach 'et al.' However, since “et al.” is plural, it cannot be used to indicate only one name. If there are three authors and only the last author is different, use the full name for all citations rather than abbreviating the last author as et al.

    Lee, J. Y., Kim, S., Park, J. H., & Seo, S. S. (2017) and Lee, J. Y., Han, M., Lee, Y. & Chun, S. (2017)
    → Lee, Kim et al. (2017) and Lee, Han et al. (2017).
    (Lee, J. Y., Kim, S., & Park, J. H., 2017) and (Lee, J. Y., Han, M., & Lee, Y., 2017)
    → (Lee, Kim, & Park, 2017) and (Lee, Han, & Lee, 2017).

  • 2. Citing multiple works or multiple works of one author in the text:

  • 1) Write the authors' names in ABC order and separate them with a semicolon ';'

    As shown in previous studies (Edeline & Weinberger, 1991, 1993; Kamil, 1988; Kim, 1998; Park & Kim, 2000; Pepperberg et al., 1990) ...

  • 2) If you want to highlight a particular work cited, put the citation first in parentheses, then place the rest in alphabetical order. Inserted semicolon and phrase "see also" after first quotation for emphasis.

    (Sampson & Hughes, 2020; see also Augustine, 2017; Melara et al., 2018; Pérez, 2014)

  • 3) In the case of in-text citations, when multiple works are cited within one sentence, they are listed regardless of alphabetical order.

    Suliman (2018), Gutiérrez (2012, 2017), and Medina and Reyes (2019) examined...

  • 3. If the author is an institution:

  • 1) Write the name of the institution

    According to the survey of Korea Research Foundation (2000) ...
    (Korea Research Foundation, 2000)

  • 2) If the institution name is used as an abbreviation, write the full institution name in the first citation, put the abbreviation in [ ], and write only the abbreviation from the second citation.

    First citation: National Institute of Mental Health [NIMH] (1999) surveyed…
    Second citation: …showed significant differences (NIMH, 1999).

  • 3) When citing three institutions at once, use the name of the first institution followed by "et al."

    (American Educational Research Association et al., 2014)

  • 4) If the abbreviation of two institutions is the same, use the full institution name in each citation.

    American Psychological Association (APA), American Psychiatric Association (APA) instead of an abbreviation, APA.

  • 4. When the author is not specified:

    Write the book title or article title instead of the author's name.
  • 1) If the author is explicitly designated as "anonymous", "anonymous" will replace the author's name in-text citations.

    (Anonymous, 2017)

  • 2) If a book without an author (dictionary, guidebook, report, etc.) is cited as a whole in the text, the title of the book is italicized.

    Oxford essential world atlas (2001) ...
    ...the book College bound seniors (1979) …
    ... Dictionary of fashion (1995) defines it as ....

  • 3) When citing a magazine article with no author or an article or internet specific source: put quotation marks around the short title consisting of the first two or three words of the title.

    (“Understanding sensory memory,” 2018)

    Book with no author: (Interpersonal skills, 2019)

  • 4) If the title of a book is italicized in the reference list, italicize the title within the text, and if it is not italicized, use double quotation marks for the title in the text.
  • 5. Re-citing material cited in another literature:

    The author name(s) of the original work should be written first, and the re-citing work should be written separately.
  • 1) If the year of the original work is unknown:

    Seidenberg and McClelland's study (as cited in Coltheart et al., 1993) ...
    According to Im and So (as cited in Han & Kim, 2006) ...

  • 2) If the year of the original work is known:

    (Rabbitt, 1982, as cited in Lyon et al., 2014) / Rabbitt (1982, as cited in Lyon et al., 2014) …

  • 3) In the reference list, a re-citing literature that the researcher directly referred to is presented.

    Coltheart, M., Curtis, B., Atkins, P., & Haller, M. (1993). Models of reading aloud: Dual-route and parallel-distributed-processing approaches. Psychological Review, 100, 589-608.
    Han, E. K., & Kim, E. A. (2006). Classification of textural descriptors for establishing Texture Naming System (TNS) of fabrics-Textural descriptions of women's suits fabrics for fall/winter seasons-. Journal of the Korean Society of Clothing and Textiles, 30(5), 699-710.

  • 6. Direct quote:

    If the direct quotation is inserted in the text, indicate the cited page (p. or pp.) with author and year. A single page is denoted by “p.” and multiple pages are denoted by “pp.” A dash separates page ranges (e.g., pp. 34-36). Use commas when pages are discontinuous (e.g., pp. 67, 72). In the case of a work without the number of pages, indicate which paragraph it is in (author, year, para. X).
  • 1) For a short quote of fewer than 40 words, type “ ” and specify the page in parentheses.

    Lee(2004)는 의류학 연구에 대하여 “의복과 관련된 다양한 의문들이 연구문제가 되고, 연구문제에 대한해답의 추구과정이 과학적으로 이루어질 때 진정한 의류학 연구라 할 수 있다”고 정의하였다(p. 19).
    의류학 연구는 “의복과 관련된 다양한 의문들이 연구문제가 되고, 연구문제에 대한 해답의 추구과정이 과학적으로 이루어질 때 진정한 의류학 연구라 할 수 있다”고 정의한다(Lee, 2004, para. 2).

  • 2) In case of more than 40 words, end the preceding sentence with a colon, and quote directly as a separate line. In this case, the font size should be reduced by 1 point, spaced one line above and below, and indented one space at a time to distinguish it from the main text, and cited references are indicated.

    Lee(2004)는 연구방법에 대하여 다음과 같이 설명한다:

    현상을 결정하는 요인을 밝히는 방법으로는 이론으로부터 원인을 추리하는 이론연구방법과, 현상을 분석하여 원인이 되는 요인을 추리하는 현상연구방법이 있다. 전자를 연역적 방법, 후자를 귀납적 방법이라 한다(p. 25)

    ...the book College bound seniors (1979) …

    ... Dictionary of fashion (1995) defines it as ....

  • 7. Citing the source of figures:

    The source of figures and visual data cited must be stated. The source is "Adapted or Reprinted from author name (keyword in the title if there is no author) under the title of the figure (Fig.) displayed in the text. (year). p. Page. or URL. Copyright information" and indicate the source according to the method of organizing references in references. If the content of the original picture is modified, it is written as "Adapted from," and if the original is used as it is, it is written as "Reprinted from".
  • Fig. 2. Technology Acceptance Model (TAM2). Reprinted from Venkatesh and Davis (2000). p. 186.
  • Fig. 3. Model of hypothesized relationships. Adapted from Horton and Wallander (2001). p. 386. Copyright 2001 by the Educational Publishing Foundation. Adapted with permission.
  • 8. Translated work cited in the text:

    In principle, the author's name and the year of publication of the original work/year of publication of the translation should be written together.
  • Laplace (1814/1951) / (Shakespeare, 1601/1994)
  • 9. Statutes and court precedents(cases) cited in the text:

  • 1) In case of statute:

    (The Law on Assembly and Demonstration, 2007) /The Law on Assembly and Demonstration (2007) ...

  • 2) In case of court precedents(cases):

    (Tarasoff v. Regents of the University of California, 1976) / Tarasoff v. Regents of the University of California (1976) …

  • Reference list writing format: according to the number of authors

    1. With one author: Last name, first name initial (year)

  • Kim, M. (2014).
  • According to Im and So (as cited in Han & Kim, 2006) ...
  • 2. When there are 2 to 20 authors: last name, initials, last name, initials, & last name, initials (year) of the last author (all authors' names are indicated):

  • Peter, J. P., Olson, J. C., & Grunert, K. G. (1999).
  • Rabbitt (1982, as cited in Lyon et al., 2014) …
  • 3. More than 21 authors:

    Mark 19 authors from the front, then mark “...the last author”. Separate names with commas, and write names in initials. The original doi is long and complex, so you can use the shortened doi. Last Name, Initial Name, Last Name, Initial Initial Name, Last Name, Initial Initial Name, Last Name, Initial Initial Name, Last Name, Initial Initial Name, Last Name, Initial Initial Name, ... Last Author's Last Name, Initial Initial Name (Year).
  • Kalnay, E., Kanamitsu, M., Kistler, R., Collins, W., Deaven, D., Gandin, L., Iredell, M., Saha, S., White, G., Woollen, J., Zhu, Y., Chelliah, M., Ebisuzaki, W., Higgins, W., Janowiak, J., Mo, K. C., Ropelewski, C., Wang, J., Leetmaa, A., . . . Joseph, D. (1996). The NCEP/NCAR 40-year reanalysis project. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 77(3), 437-472.
  • Reference list writing format: according to the type of works

    1. Journal articles

  • 1) If the title is in English → author's name. (year of publication). title. Journal title, volume (issue), page.

    Song, M. H., & Hwang, J. S. (2008). The effect of fashion leadership on fashion products purchase in surrogate internet shopping mall. Journal of the Korean Society of Clothing and Textiles, 32(2), 179-189.

  • 2) Journal article with a DOI: Write the DOI number after the page. In case of online publication, enter the DOI number or URL address (for journal papers without a DOI number).

    Lim, G. J., & Lee, M. S. (2011). A study on structural characteristics and objective hand of knit fabrics-A focus on Intarsia and Color Jacquard-. Journal of the Korean Society of Clothing and Textiles, 35(8), 968-981.
    Von Ledebur, S. C. (2007). Optimizing knowledge transfer by new employees in companies. Knowledge Management Research & Practice. Advance online publication.
    Williams, J. (2008). The victims of crime. Sociology Review, 17(4), 30-32.

  • 3) Journal article, published in another language: When using a journal written in a foreign language as a source, write the original title in front and write the translated title in English in braces. If the journal title is not in English, write it in the original language as it is.

    Guimard, P., & Florin, A. (2007). Les évaluations des enseignants engrande section de maternelle sont-elles prédictives des difficultés delecture au cours préparatoire? [Are teacher ratings in kindergarten predictive of reading difficulties in first grade?]. Approche Neuropsychologique des Apprentissages chez l'Enfant, 19, 5-17.

  • 4) Journal article with an article number or eLocator

    Burin, D., Kilteni, K., Rabuffetti, M., Slater, M., & Pia, L. (2019). Body ownership increases the interference between observed and executed movements. PLOS ONE, 14(1), Article e0209899.

  • 5) Journal article, in press

    Pachur, T., & Scheibehenne, B. (in press). Unpacking buyer-seller differences in valuation from experience: A cognitive modeling approach. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review.
    (Pachur & Scheibehenne, in press) / Pachur & Scheibehenne (in press) …

  • 6) Journal article, republished in translation

    Piaget, J. (1972). Intellectual evolution from adolescence to adulthood (J. Bliss & H. Furth, Trans.). Human Development, 15(1), 1-12. (Original work published 1970).
    (Piaget, 1970/1972) / Piaget (1970/1972) …

  • 7) Journal article, reprinted from another source: Provide information on the reprinted version used. Provide the original paper title (even if the title has not changed), year, and source information in parentheses. Avoid putting parentheses within parentheses by putting the original number in braces rather than parentheses.

    Shore, M. F. (2014). Marking time in the land of plenty: Reflections on mental health in the United States. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 84(6), 611-618. (Reprinted from “Marking time in the land of plenty: Reflections on mental health in the United States,” 1981, American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 51[3], 391-402,

    (Shore, 1981/2014) / Shore (1981/2014) …

  • 8) Citing the whole special section or special issue in a journal: Include the editor(s) of the special issue in the position of the author and the title of the special issue in the part of the title, and mark “[Special Issue].”

    McDaniel, S. H., Salas, E., & Kazak, A. E. (Eds.). (2018). The science of teamwork [Special Issue]. American Psychologist, 73(4).

    (McDaniel et al, 2018) / McDaniel et al. (2018) …

  • 9) Citing the part of special section or special issue in a journal: specify volume (issue number), page(s).

    Lilienfeld, S.O. (Ed.). (2018). Heterodox issues in psychology [Special section]. Archives of Scientific Psychology, 6(1), 51-104.
    (Lilenfeld, 2018) / Lilenfeld (2018) …

  • 2. Newspaper and magazine article

    1) Newspaper(magazine) article: author's name. (year, month, day of publication). title. Newspaper (Magazine) title, page, URL
    Bustillos, M. (2013, March 19). On video games and storytelling: An interview with Tom Bissell. The New Yorker.
    Ryu, S. J. (2015, February 27). Burrkeoru foreign participation show, American bash. Fashionbiz, 5-6,
    (Ryu, 2015) / Ryu (2015) …

    2) If the author and publisher are the same, write the publisher in the author's name and omit the publisher from the source element.
    Fashionbiz. (2015, February 27). Burrkeoru foreign participation show, American bash. 5-6,
    (Fashionbiz, 2015) / Fashionbiz (2015) …

    3. Books and reference works

    General rules to cite the publisher
    Do not include the location of the publisher in the references.
    Write the name of the publisher presented on the work, put a period, and do not abbreviate the name unless it is presented in an abbreviated form on the work.
    The format of the publisher name may change depending on the passage of time and the work (Example: SAGE publishing vs. Sage Publications). The exact spelling and capitalization of the publisher name as presented used by the author(s) must be used.
    Do not include the name of the business structure in the name of the publisher (Example: Inc., Ltd., LLC).
    If more than one publisher is listed on the copyright page, include all publishers in the order indicated in the work, separated by a semicolon.
    If an abbreviation is included in the official title of the publishing organization, indicate the abbreviation in the references (eg PLOS ONE, JAMA Pediatrics). However, the title of a periodical should not be arbitrarily abbreviated. For example, authors should not abbreviate New England Journal of Medicine as N Engl J Med.

    General rules to cite the DOI or URL
    If a DOI is given, write the DOI.
    When uploaded as a book on the online web or an audiobook, provide the URL.
    If the URL requires a login or is a specific session that is not normally opened (e.g., accessed only from a particular IP), write the URL of the database or archive homepage or login page instead of the working URL.
    If the URL no longer works or provides readers access to the content you cite, delete it or replace it with another source.

    1) the general form of a book in English: author's name. (year of publication). title, publisher. DOI or URL (if any). If the content is the same, there is no need to disclose that you used an audiobook or e-book. If you want to reveal something specific about an audiobook, put the fact that it is an audiobook in the title element. Enter URL instead of DOI for non-database book materials (e.g., books uploaded to an online website).
    Mitchell, T. R., & Larson, J. R., Jr. (1987). People in organizations: An introduction to organizational behavior (3rd ed.). McGraw-Hill.
    Brown, L. S. (2018). Feminist therapy. American Psychological Association.

    2) Part of an edited book: After the title, add "(Ed. Or Eds.)".
    Meadows, D. H. (2008). Thinking in systems: A primer (D. Wright, Ed.). Chelsea Green Publishing.

    3) Edited book: Editor(s)’ name. (Ed. Or Eds.) (year of publication). title, publisher. DOI or URL (if any).
    Hughes, J. H. (Ed.). (2017). Military veteran psychological health and social care: Contemporary approaches. Routledge.
    (Hughes, 2017)/ Hughes (2017) …
    Schmid, H. J. (Ed.). (2016). Entrenchment and the psychology of language learning: how we reorganize and adapt linguistic knowledge. De Gruyter Mouton.

    4) Books in other languages: Authors. (year). Title in original language [translated book title].
    Piaget, J., & Inhelder, B. (1951). La genèse de l'idée de hasard chez l'enfant [The origin of the idea of danger in the child]. Presses Universitaires de France.
    (Piaget & Inhelder, 1951) / Piaget and Inhelder (1951) …
    Korea Federation of Textile Industries. (1997). 섬유연감 '97 [Textile yearbook '97]. Jeongmunsa.
    (Korea Federation of Textile Industries, 1997) / Korea Federation of Textile Industries (1997) …

    5) Translated book: Original author. (year of publication). Title of the translation (translator name, Trans.). publisher. DOI or URL (if any). (Original work published XXXX). If the author's name is written on the title page, write the author's name first. The year of translation is written first, and the translator's name is written after the title. Original works are cited in the translated language. For example, if a book in French has been translated into English and you have read the English translation, the reference list should be entered in English. For all translations, the year the work was first published in the original language must be presented in parentheses in the form of (Original work published 2002) at the end of the bibliography.
    Laplace, P. S. (1951).A philosophical essay on probabilities (F. W. Truscott & F. L. Emory, Trans.). Dover. (Original work published 1814).
    (Laplace, 1814/1951) / Laplace (1814/1951) …

    6) Books republished in audio book or in edited: Original author. (year republished). Title (Audio Reader Name/Editor Name, Narr./Ed.) [Audiobook]. publisher name. (Original work published XXXX). If the audiobook was released in a different year than the text version of the book, acknowledge it as a republishment and indicate [Audiobook] in braces. If the new version is edited from the original, provide the editor's and translator's names in parentheses after the title.
    Rowling, J. K. (2015). Harry Potter and the sorcerer`s stone (J. Dale, Narr.) [Audiobook]. Pottermore Publishing. (Original work published 1997)
    (Rowling, 1997/2015) / Rowling (1997/2015) …
    Freud, S. (2010). The interpretation of dreams: The complete and definitive text (J. Strachey, Ed.). Basic Books. (Original work published 1900)
    (Freud, 1900/2010) / Freud (1900/2010) …

    7) Headword (entry word) of a dictionary, thesaurus, or encyclopedia: Author name or organization name. (year). Headwords (entry words). In book title. Publisher. If the URL author and publisher are the same, the publisher is omitted from the source element (when the author or publisher are the same). A search date is not required if a fixed work or an archived version is cited. In the case of Wikipedia, follow the “Internet Resources-Wikipedia Citation Method.”
    Merriam-Webster. (n.d.) Self-report. In dictionary. Retrieved July 12, 2019, from
    (Merriam-Webster, n.d.) / Merriam-Webster(n.d.) …
    If there is a separate author of the input data: Cite in the same way as citing the chapter included in the edited books: Graham, G. (2019). Behaviorism. In E. N. Zalta (Ed.), The Stanford encyclopedia of philosophy (summer). Stanford University.
    (Graham, 2019) / Graham (2019) …

    8) Chapter in an edited book: Chapter author name. (year). Title of the chapter. In Editor(s)’ name (Ed. Or Eds.), The title of edited book. (p. or pp.). Publisher. DOI or URL (If any). In the case of e-books and audiobook, indicate the URL. If a volume has a series editor and volume editors, only the volume editors are presented in the bibliography.
    Massaro, D. (1992). Broadening the domain of the fuzzy logical model of perception. In H. L. Pick Jr., P. van den Broek, & D. C. Knill (Eds.), Cognition: Conceptual and methodological issues (pp. 51-84). American Psychological Association.
    (Massaro, 1992) / Massaro (1992) …

    9) Chapter in an edited book in another language: The title of the chapter translated into English is written in square brackets, [ ]. For works that are part of a larger overall book, only the titles of the chapters/units cited are translated. It is not necessary to translate the title of a whole book: Research article or chapter included in edited books.
    Carcavilla González, N. (2015). Terapia sensorial auditiva: Activación cerebral por medio de la música [Auditory sensory therapy: Brain activation through music]. In J. J. García Meilán (Ed.), Guía práctica de terapias estimulativas en el Alzhéimer (pp. 67–86). Editorial Síntesis.
    (Carcavilla González, 2015) / Carcavilla González(2015) …

    10) Chapter in a volume of a multivolume work: Chapter author name. (year). Chapter title. In Editor (Ed. Or Eds.), Series title, Volume number (edition number, volume number, p. or pp.). Publisher. If each volume has an individual title, list the main title first, and put a colon with the volume number and volume title followed.
    Goldin-Meadow, S. (2015). Gesture and cognitive development. In L. S. Liben & U. Mueller (Eds.), Handbook of child psychology and developmental science: Vol. 2. Cognitive processes (7th ed., pp. 339-380). John Wiley & Sons.
    (Goldin-Meadow, 2015) / Goldin-Meadow (2015) …

    11) Institutional or other group research report: Group author name. (year). Title. Publisher. URL. If the publisher and the author's information are the same, the publisher is omitted. The name of the parent institution, which is not presented in the group author name, is presented as the publisher.
    Australian Bureau of Statistics. (1991). Estimated resident population by age and sex in statistical local areas, New South Wales, June 1990.
    (Australian Bureau of Statistics, 1991) / Australian Bureau of Statistics (1991) …
    National Cancer Institute. (2018). Facing forward: Life after cancer treatment. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health.

    12) Reports by individual authors of institutions or other bodies: Authors. (year). Title. Publisher Information. URL
    Fried, D., & Polyakova, A. (2018). Democratic defense against disinformation. Atlantic Council.
    (Fried & Polyakova, 2018) / Fried & Polyakova (2018) …

    4. Conference sessions and presentations

    1) Conference sessions: Author name. (year, month, day). Paper title [Conference session]. Conference name, the host city, country. URL. For the United States, the two-letter postal code acronym or, in the case of territories with an acronym, write the acronym after the host city.
    Fistek, A., Jester, E, & Sonnenberg, K. (2017, July 12-15). Everybody's got a little music in them: Using music therapy to connect, engage, and motivate [Conference session]. Autism Society National Conference, Milwaukee, Wl, United States. https://asa.con-

    2) Conference paper presentation: Author name. (year, month, day). Paper title [Paper presentation]. Conference name, the host city, country. URL. For the United States, the two-letter postal code acronym or, in the case of territories with an acronym, write the acronym after the host city.
    Maddox, S., Hurling, J., Stewart, E., & Edwards, A. (2016, March 30-April 2). If mama ain't happy, nobody's happy: The effect of parental depression on mood dysregulation in children [Paper presentation]. Southeastern Psychological Association 62nd Annual Meeting, New Orleans, FL, United States.

    3) Conference poster presentation: Author name. (year, month, day). Paper title [Poster presentation]. Conference name, the host city, country. URL. For the United States, the two-letter postal code acronym or, in the case of territories with an acronym, write the acronym after the host city.
    Pearson, J. (2018, September 27-30). Fat talk and its effects on state-based body image in women [Poster presentation]. Australian Psychological Society Congress, Sydney, NSW, Australia.

    5. Thesis and dissertation

    1) Unpublished dissertation (or thesis): Author name. (Year of graduation). Title [Degree]. University name.
    Harris, L. (2014). Instructional leadership perceptions and practices of elementary school leaders [Unpublished doctoral dissertation]. University of Virginia.

    2) Dissertation or thesis published in the database: Author name. (Year of graduation). Title (Publication Number). [Degree, university]. Database name.
    Hollander, M. M. (2017). Resistance to authority: Methodological innovations and new lessons from the Milgram experiment (Publication No. 10289373) [Doctoral dissertation, University of Wisconsin-Madison]. ProQuest Dissertations and Theses Global.

    3) Dissertation or thesis published online: Author name. (Year of graduation). Title [Degree, university]. University archive name. URL.
    Hutcheson, V. H. (2012). Dealing with dual differences: Social coping strategies of gifted and lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer adolescents [Master's thesis, The College of William & Mary]. William & Mary Digital Archive.

    6. Visual works

    The example below is the 'citation' method in the text and references, and the use of images in the text requires additional permission from the copyright holder.

    1) Photographs with a title: Artist name. (Year of production). Title [Photograph]. Site name. URL
    McCurry, S. (1985). Afghan girl [Photograph]. National Geographic. https://www.

    2) Photographs without a title: Artist name. (Year of production). [Description of photograph]. Site name. URL
    Rinaldi, J. (2016). [Photograph series of a boy who finds his footing after abuse by those he trusted]. The Pulitzer Prizes.

    3) Artwork in a museum or on a museum website: Artist name. (Year of production). Title [Art form]. Museum name, City, State, Country. URL. Use this format to cite all types of museum art (including paintings, sculptures, photographs, prints, drawings and installations). Always include a description of the medium or form after the title, enclosed in braces ([ ]). In the case of an artwork without a title, a description of the artwork is enclosed in braces, [ ], in place of the title of the artwork.
    Wood, G. (1930). American gothic [Painting]. Art Institute of Chicago, Chicago, IL, United States.
    Delacroix, E. (1826-1827). Faust attempts to seduce Marguerite [Lithograph]. The Louvre, Paris, France.

    4) Map with a title: Author name. (Year of production). Title [Map]. Site name. URL
    Cable, D. (2013). The racial dot map [Map]. University of Virginia, Weldon Cooper Center for Public Service.

    5) Map without a title (when a retrieval date is necessary): Site name. (n.d.). [Description of a map]. Retrieved date, from URL
    Google. (n.d.). [Google Maps directions for driving from La Paz, Bolivia, to Lima, Peru]. Retrieved February 16, 2020, from
    (Google, n.d.) / Google (n.d.) …

    7. Online media-Website/webpages

    Include a retrieval date only if the content is designed to change over time and the page is not stored in an archive.

    1) Authored Internet news: Author name. (Year, month, date of publication). Title. Site name. URL
    Avramova, N. (2019, January 3). The secret to a long, happy, healthy life? Think age­ positive. CNN. leads-to-long-life-intl/index.html

    2) Group-authored news: Institution name. (Year, month, date of publication). Title. Site name. URL. If the site name and the group author name are the same, omit the site name.
    World Health Organization. (2018, March). Questions and answers on immunization and vaccine safety.

    3) A work without a date: Author name. (n.d.). Title. Site name. URL
    National Nurses United. (n.d.). What employers should do to protect nurses from Zika.

    4) When a retrieval date is necessary: Author name. (n.d.). Title. Site name. Retrieved date from URL
    U.S. Census Bureau. (n.d.). U.S. and world population clock. U.S. Department of Commerce. Retrieved July 3, 2019, from
    (U.S. Census Bureau, n.d.) / U.S. Census Bureau (n.d.) …

    8. Online media-SNS

    1) Twitter: Author name [@ account name]. (Year, month, date of publication). Title description in 20 words or less, including hashtags and emoticons [Source form]. SNS name. URL. If citing a tweeter profile, include a retrieval date.
    APA Education [@APAEducation]. (2018, June 30). College students are forming mental-health clubs — and they're making a difference @washingtonpost [Thumbnail with link attached]. Twitter.
    Badlands National Park [@BadlandsNPS]. (2018, February 27). Biologists have identified more than 400 different plant species growing in @BadlandsNPS #DYK #biodiversity [Tweet]. Twitter.
    White, B. [@BettyMWhite]. (2018, June 21). I treasure every minute we spent together #koko [Image attached]. Twitter.
    APA Style [@APA_Style]. (n.d.). Tweets [Twitter profile]. Twitter. Retrieved November 1, 2019, from
    (APA Education, 2018; Badlands National Park, 2018; White, 2018) / APA Education (2018), Badlands National Park (2018) and White (2018) …

    2) Facebook: Account name. (Year, month, date of publication). Title description in 20 words or less, including emoticons [Source form]. SNS name. URL. Include a retrieval date when citing a page of Facebook.
    News From Science. (2018, June 26). These frogs walk instead of hop: https://scim. ag/2KlriwH [Video]. Facebook.
    Smithsonian’s National Zoo and Conservation Biology Institute. (n.d.). Home [Facebook page]. Facebook. Retrieved July 22, 2019, from

    3) Instagram: Author name [@ account name]. (Year, month, date of publication). Title description in 20 words or less, including hashtags and emoticons [Source form]. SNS name. URL. If citing an Instagram highlight, include a retrieval date.
    Zeitz MOCAA [@zeitzmocaa]. (2018, November 26). Grade 6 learners from Parkfields Primary School in Hanover Park visited the museum for a tour and workshop hosted by [Photographs]. Instagram. https://www.instagram.eom/p/BqpHpjFBs3b/
    The New York Public Library [@nypl]. (n.d.). The raven [Highlight]. Instagram. Retrieved April 16, 2019, from

    4) Blog posting: Author name. (Year, month, date of posting). Posting Title. URL
    Klymkowsky, M. (2018, September 15). Can we talk scientifically about free will?

    9. Audiovisual works

    1) Webinar, recorded: Author name. (Year). Title [Webinar]. Media name. URL
    Goldberg, J. F. (2018). Evaluating adverse drug effects [Webinar]. American Psychiatric Association.

    2) YouTube or other streaming video: Author name [Channel name]. (Year, month, day of release). Video Title [Video]. Streaming service site name. URL
    Fogarty, M. [Grammar Girl]. (2016, September 30). How to diagram a sentence (absolute basics) [Video]. YouTube.

    3) Film or video: Director name. (Director). (Year of production). Film Title [Film]. Production company name.
    Forman, M. (Director). (1975). One flew over the cuckoo's nest [Film]. United Artists.
    The New York Public Library [@nypl]. (n.d.). The raven [Highlight]. Instagram. Retrieved April 16, 2019, from

    4) Film or video in other language: Director name. (Director). (Year of production). Film Title in original language [Translated title] [Film]. Production company name.
    Malle, L. (Director). (1987). Au revoir les enfants [Goodbye children] [Film]. Nouvelles editions de Films.

    5) TV series episode: Writer name. (Writer), & director name. (Director). (Year, month, day of release). Title of Episode (Series number, episode number) [TV series episode]. In Executive producer name (Executive Producers), Series Title. Production company name.
    Oakley, B. (Writer), Weinstein, J. (Writer), & Lynch, J. (Director). (1995, May 21). Who shot Mr. Burns? (Part one) (Season 6, Episode 25) [TV series episode]. In D. Mirkin, J. L. Brooks, M. Groening, & S. Simon (Executive Producers), The Simpsons. Gracie Films; Twentieth Century Fox Film Corporation.
    (Oakley et al., 1995) / Oakley et al. (1995) …

    6) Wikipedia: Entry word. (Year, month, day). In Wikipedia. URL
    List of oldest companies. (2019, January 13). In Wikipedia.
    (“List of oldest companies”, 2019) / “List of oldest companies” (2019) …

    10. Other media

    Common software or apps (Word, Excel, PowerPoint, Facebook, Instagram, Twitter, Qualtrics, Adobe, Photoshop, R, SPSS, SAS, etc.) need not be cited. When citing in the text, only include version information and the proper title of the software. For an example of a narrative citation, “Data were analyzed with IBM SPSS Statistics (version 25).”
    If a restatement or direct quotation from the software or an app is not familiar to the reader, include it in the bibliography. Titles of software or apps are italicized in references but should not be italicized in the text.

    1) Dataset: Author name. (Year). Title [Data form]. Publisher. URL For published data, indicate the year of publication; for unpublished data, indicate the year of collection. If there is a version number, put it in parentheses after the title. Indicate the organization's name that published, archived, produced, or distributed, and in the case of unpublished data, indicate the source, such as the university.
    D'Souza, A., & Wiseheart, M. (2018). Cognitive effects of music and dance training in children (ICPSR 37080; Version V1) [Data set]. ICPSR.
    (D'Souza & Wiseheart, 2018) / D'Souza & Wiseheart (2018) …

    2) Software: Author name. (Year). Title [Data form]. Publisher. URL
    Borenstein, M., Hedges, L.,Higgins, J., & Rothstein, H. (2014). Comprehensive meta­analysis (Version 3.3.070) [Computer software]. Biostat.

    3) Mobile application: Author name. (Year). Title [Mobile app]. Source. URL
    Epocrates. (2019). Epocrates medical references (Version 18.12) [Mobile app]. App Store.
    (Epocrates, 2019) / Epocrates (2019) …

    4) CD-ROM: Author name. (Year). Title [CD-ROM or Motion picture]. Publisher.
    National Folk Museum of Korea. (2005). Bracelet, an illustrated book of history and culture the Korean people: Clothing habits [Film; four-disc special extended ed. on CD-ROM]. National Folk Museum of Korea.

    11. Legal references

    The 7th edition of the APA presents examples applicable to the US judicial system. For legal reference notation related to Korean and other countries’ laws and precedents, refer to “법률문헌의 인용방법 표준안 [A guide to legal citation]”(Judicial Policy Research Institute, 2017,

    1) Cases or court decisions: Title or name of the case (usually one party versus the other), case number (sentence court and year of decision), source (usually for the volume and page of the book containing the case), URL (if any)
    U.S. Supreme Court case with a page number: Brown v. Board of Education, 347 U.S. 483 (1954).
    U.S. Supreme Court case without a page number: Obergefell v. Hodges, 576 U.S. __ (2015).
    U.S. circuit court case: Daubert v. Merrell Dow Pharmaceuticals, Inc., 951 F.2d 1128 (9th Cir. 1991).
    (Daubert v. Merrell Dow Pharmaceuticals, Inc., 1991) / Daubert v. Merrell Dow Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (1991) …
    U.S. district court case with appeal: Durflinger v. Artiles, 563 F. Supp. 322 (D. Kan. 1981), aff’d, 727 F.2d 888 (10th Cir. 1984).
    Durflinger v. Artiles, 1981/1984) / Durflinger v. Artiles (1981/1984) …

    2) Laws and acts: Name of Act, Title sources § Section Number (Year). URL
    Americans With Disabilities Act of 1990, 42 U.S.C. § 12101 et seq. (1990).
    (Americans With Disabilities Act, 1990) / Americans With Disabilities Act (1990) …
    Civil Rights Act of 1964, Pub. L. No. 88-352, 78 Stat. 241 (1964).
    (Civil Rights Act, 1964) / Civil Rights Act (1964) …

    12. Patents

    Author (Inventor). (Year the patent was issued). Title (patent number). Source. URL (If any)

    Hiremath, S. C., Kumar, S., Lu, F., & Salehi, A. (2016). Using metaphor to present aoncepts across different intellectual domains (U.S. Patent No. 9,367,592). U.S. Patent and Trademark Office.

    13. Old / Ancient works

    1) When republished by a new publisher: It is cited as an edited work.
    Shakespeare, W. (1995). Much ado about nothing (B. A. Mowat & P. Werstine, Eds.). Washington Square Press. (Original work Published 1623)
    (Shakespeare, 1623/1995) / Shakespeare (1623/1995) …

    2) A photographic edition of non-authored old work: Title [English title]. (Year of the photoprint publication). (Photoprint publisher name, edition number). Original publisher. (Year of original work publication). URL (If any)
    국조오례의 [Gukjo-oryeui]. (1979). Kyungmoonsa. (Original work published 1474)

    3) A photographic edition without a publication year: Author name. (Year of the photoprint publication). Title [English title]. (Photoprint publisher name, edition number). Original publisher. (n.d. or ca. estimated year of original work publication). URL (If any)
    Yee, K. K. (1959). 오주연문장전산고 [Oju-Yeonmunjangjeon-Sango]. Dongguk Moonhwasa. (Original work published ca. 19C)

    4) An old work without a publisher: Author name. (Year of publication). Title [English title]. (Photoprint publisher name, edition number). Original publisher. (n.d. or ca. estimated year of original work publication). URL (If any)
    Park, M. S. (1749). 國婚定例 [Kuk Hon Geong Rea].

    5) An old work without a publisher: Author name. (Year of publication). Title [English title]. (Photoprint publisher name, edition number). Original publisher. (n.d. or ca. estimated year of original work publication). URL (If any)
    National Institute of Korean History. (2005-2015). 朝鮮王朝實錄 [The annals of the Joseon dynasty].

    6) An old work before the common era: Author name. (Year of the copyright). Title (Editor or Translator name, Ed. or Trans.). Source. URL (If any). (an estimated original work publication year).
    Use “B.C.E.,” an abbreviation for before the common era.
    Aristotle. (1994). Poetics (S. H. Butcher, Trans.). The Internet Classics Archive. (Original work published ca. 350 B.C.E.)
    (Aristotle, ca. 350 B.C.E./1994) / Aristotle (ca. 350 B.C.E./1994) …

    7) Religious work with a specific norm: If a religious or classical work has sections numbered by edition according to some norm (e.g., books, chapters, verses, texts, cantos), when citing a specific part or direct citation of that work, use that particular number instead of the page number.
    King James Bible. (2017). King James Bible Online. (Original work published 1769)
    The person vowed to “set me as a seal upon thine heart” (King James Bible, 1769/2017, Song of Solomon 8:6)

    Useful links for more information on APA 7th Edition