How to cite references in the text
1. When the author's name is cited in the text:
1) One or Two author(s): Include the author's last name(s). If two or more authors are mentioned in a sentence, they should be linked with 'and' ('&' in the reference list or when cited in parentheses).
• Walker and Johnson (2000) compared the differences …
• … (Smith & Gunless, 1988), …
• According to Kim and Park (2002) …
• … (Im & So, 1987), …
2) Three or more authors: Write only the first author's last name and write 'et al.' after the name. In the reference list, authors should be listed in the same order as on the title page of the reference.
• … (Kernis et al., 1993).
• According to Kernis et al. (1993) …
3) Different authors sharing the same last (family) name: When citing different authors with the same last name, include their first and middle initials, so that readers can differentiate them. If the initials are also the same, include their full first names to differentiate them.
• According to M. Kim (2012)…, and Y. Kim (2012) asserted …
• (E. Johnson, 2001; L. Johnson, 2001)
• (Paul Janet, 1876; Pierre Janet, 1906)
4) Two or more works by the same author in the same year: Use lower-case letters (a, b, c) with the year to order the entries in the reference list. Use lower-case letters with the year in the in-text citation.
• Kim (2014a), Kim (2014b)
• (Kim, 2008a, 2008b)
5) Two or more works by the same lead/first author but different second author: If two or more references with more than three surnames with the same year shorten to the same form, cite the surnames of the first authors and those of as many of the subsequent authors as necessary to distinguish the references, followed by a comma and 'et al.'
• Lee, J. Y., Kim, S., Park, J. H., & Seo, S. S. (2017) …
→ Lee, Kim, Park et al. (2017)
• Lee, J. Y., Kim, D. H., Shin, S., & Lee, H. S. (2017) …
→ Lee, Kim, Shin et al. (2017)
2. Two or more citations by different authors within the same parentheses: Order them alphabetically separated by a semi-colon (;).
• As evidenced in the previous literature (Edeline & Weinberger, 1991, 1993; Kamil, 1988; Kim, 1998; Park & Kim, 2000; Pepperberg et al., 1990) …
3. When the author is an institution: List the name of the institution. If the name of the institution is abbreviated, record the full name of the institution in the first quotation, put the abbreviation in brackets ([ ]), and use the abbreviation starting from the second quotation.
• According to the report by Korea Research Foundation (2000). …
• … (Korea Research Foundation, 1999).
• First time citation: (National Institute of Mental Health [NIMH], 1999) surveyed …
Second time citation: … showed significant differences (NIMH, 1999).
4. Materials without an author specified: Record the title of the book or article instead of the author's name.
1) When quoting from an entire book (dictionaries, brochures, reports, etc.) that has no identified author, list the book title in italics.
• Oxford essential world atlas (2001) …
• … the book College bound seniors (1979)
• … Dictionary of fashion (1995) defines retro style as …
2) When quoting specific material from a newspaper, magazine article, or the Internet: Put a shortened title, consisting of the main words in the title, in quotation marks (" ").
•… on free care ("Study Finds", 1982).
•… a new style ("Y Generation", 1998) …
3) When quoting a specific title word from a dictionary: Put the heading in quotation marks (" ").
• ("Culture shock", 2004, para. 3)
5. Citing secondary sources: The original author's name should be listed first and the re-cited documents should be listed in parentheses followed by "as cited in".
• Seidenberg and McClelland's study (as cited in Coltheart et al., 1993) …
• As for Im and So (as cited in Han & Kim, 2006) …
→ List secondary source in the reference.
• Coltheart, M., Curtis, B., Atkins, P., & Haller, M. (1993). Models of reading aloud: Dual-route and parallel-distributed-processing approaches. Psychological Review, 100, 589−608.
• Han, E. K., & Kim, E. A. (2006). Classification of textural descriptors for establishing Texture Naming System (TNS) of fabrics-Textural descriptions of women's suits fabrics for fall/winter seasons-. Journal of the Korean Society of Clothing and Textiles, 30(5), 699−710.
6. For direct quotations: If the direct quotation is in the text, along with author and year, indicate the page number: author, year, p. page_number (or, when citing documents with no page number, the number of the paragraph, expressed in the form of para. X)
1) Put short quotes (less than two lines) in quotation marks (" ") and specify the page number in parentheses.
• Regarding the study of clothing, Lee (2004) asserted that "a true sense of clothing study involves research questions based on everyday curiosities on clothing and the scientific pursuit of answers to such research problems" (p. 19).
• The study of clothing is defined as "the research on questions related to clothing, in which the pursuit of answers to the questions is scientifically carried out" (Lee, 2004, para. 2)
2) Long quotations should be clearly delineated, First, the text size should be reduced by 1-point font size. Second, the quotation should be separated from the main text with a blank line above and below. Third, the entire quotation should be indented. Finally, the quotation should be cited at the end after the final period. On research methods, Lee (2004) explained:
• There are two ways to identify the determinants of the phenomenon: theoretical research methods that infer reasons from the theory, and phenomenological research methods that reason the causal factors by analyzing phenomena. The former is called the deductive method, and the latter is called the inductive method (p. 25).
7. Citing figures: Sources of figures and visual materials cited must be documented. The source should be shown under the heading of the figure (Fig.) in the form of "Adapted [or Reprinted] from AuthorName (year). p. Page. [or URL.] Copyright information." If you have modified the original picture, start with "Adapted from~"; if you use the original, note "Reprinted from~" In the reference list. Cite the source in conformity with the bibliographic guidelines cited above.
• Fig. 2. Technology Acceptance Model (TAM2). Reprinted from Venkatesh and Davis (2000), p. 186.
• Fig. 3. Model of hypothesized relationships. Adapted from Horton and Wallander (2001), p. 386. Copyright 2001 by the Educational Publishing Foundation. Adapted with permission.
8. Citing translated work in the main text: The name of the author and the year of publication of both the original document and the translation should be included in the citation.
• (Laplace, 1814/1951)
• (Shakespeare, 1601/1994)
9. When citing legislative acts: Titles of legislation should be bracketed by「」
• … 「The Law on Assembly and Demonstration」 (2007) …
• … ( 「The Law on Assembly and Demonstration」, 2007) …
• … 「Mental Health Systems Act」(1988) …
• … ( 「Mental Health Systems Act」, 1988) …
10. Patents: Provide the patent number and the date of issuance of the patent (not the date of filing).
• … Korea. Patent No. 204-0012216 (1998) …
• … (Korea Patent No. 204-0012216, 1998) …
• … U.S. Patent No. 123,445 (1988) …
• … (U.S. Patent No. 123,445, 1988) …
How to Prepare the Reference List
1. Listing by the number of authors:
1) Single author: Last name, First name Initial (year)
Kim, M. (2014). …
2) Two authors: Last name, First name Initial, & Last name, First name Initial (year)
Kim, M., & Hong, K. D. (2014)
3) Three to Seven authors: Last name, First name Initial, Last name, First name Initial, … & Last name, First name Initial (year)
Peter, J. P., Olson, J. C., & Grunert, K. G. (1999). …
4) Eight or more authors: List the names of first through sixth authors, … last author.
Collins, M., Kenedy, B., Forster, B., Morris, M., Cheer, K., Hooper, H., … Jones, J. (2012). Modern Liberia. Cairns, Australia: Allen & Unwin.
5) Author names with a middle name: Write the middle name initial after the first name initial. Peter, J. P., Olson, J. C., & Grunert, K. G. (1999) …
2. How to write the English name of a Korean author:
Reference List by Document Types
1. Journal Article
1) Articles with an English title: Author Name. (Year of publication). Journal Name, Vol.(no.), page number.
• Song, M. H., & Hwang, J. S. (2008). The effect of fashion leadership on fashion products purchase in surrogate internet shopping mall. Journal of the Korean Society of Clothing and Textiles, 32(2), 179−189.
2) Documents with a DOI Number: Include the DOI number after the page number.
• Lim, G. J., & Lee, M. S. (2011). A study on structural characteristics and objective hand of knit fabrics-A focus on Intarsia and Color Jacquard-. Journal of the Korean Society of Clothing and Textiles, 35(8), 968−981. doi:10.5850/JKSCT.2011.35.8.968
3) Online-published sources: Indicate the DOI number, or URL address for articles without a DOI number.
• Von Ledebur, S. C. (2007). Optimizing knowledge transfer by new employees in companies. Knowledge Management Research & Practice. Advance online publication. doi:10.1057/palgrave.kmrp.8500141
• Williams, J. (2008). The victims of crime. Sociology Review, 17(4), 30−32. Retrieved from www.philipallan.co.uk/sociologyreview/index.htm
4) Articles with neither an English title nor English journal title: For non-English journals, record the name in the original language first followed by its English translation in brackets. If the article title is also not in English, include the original language title.
• Guimard, P., & Florin, A. (2007). Les évaluations des enseignants en grande section de maternelle sont-elles prédictives des difficultés de lecture au cours préparatoire? [Are teacher ratings in kindergarten predictive of reading difficulties in first grade?]. Approche Neuropsychologique des Apprentissages chez l'Enfan, 19, 5−17.
• Koh, B. J. (2001). 상암동 출토 전주이씨 익정(1699-1782) 유물 연구 [Study on the textiles of Chunjoo Lee family Ikjung (1699-1782) excavated from Sangamdong]. 한국복식, 19, 83−8159.
2. Newspaper (magazine) articles
1) Daily or weekly newspaper (magazine) article with an author: Use the following format: Author Name. (Year, Month Date). Article title. Newspaper name or magazine name, page number.
Monthly magazine article with an author: Use the following format: Author (year, month). Article title. Magazine name, page number
• Ryu, S. J. (2015, February 27). Burrkeoru foreign participation show, American bash. Fashionbiz, pp. 5−6
2) Daily or weekly newspaper (magazine) article without authors: Use the following format: Article title. (Year, month date). Newspaper title or magazine Title, Page number.
Monthly magazine without authors: Article title (year, month). Magazine title, page number.
• Burrkeoru foreign participation show, American bash (2015, Feburary 27). Apparel News, pp. 5−6.
• Burrkeoru foreign participation show, American bash (2015, Feburary). Fashionbiz, pp. 5−6.
3) Articles from Internet-based newspapers and magazines: Include the Internet resource citation (URL).
• Burrkeoru foreign participation show, American bash (2015, Feburary 27). Fashionbiz, 5−6. Retrieved from http://translate.google.co.kr/translate?hl=ko&sl=ko&tl=en&u=http%3A%2F%2Fwww%2Efashionbiz%2Eco %2Ekr%2Fmain%2Easp&sandbox=0&usg=ALkJrhgCzW5pguaG45mmNhw5dAfkYvnhsw
3. Books / Research Reports
1) General Guidelines
(1) When the author is an individual
• Mitchell, T. R., & Larson, J. R., Jr. (1987). People in organizations: An introduction to organizational behavior (3rd ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill.
(2) When the author is an institution
• Australian Bureau of Statistics. (1991). Estimated resident population by age and sex in statistical local areas, New South Wales, June 1990 (No. 3209.1). Canberra, Australian Capital Territory: Author.
2) Documents without an English title: Record the original title first and include the translated title in the bracket.
• Piaget, J., & Inhelder, B. (1951). La genèse de l'idée de hasard chez l'enfant [The origin of the idea of danger in the child]. Paris: Presses Universitaires de France.
• Kim, Y. H. (1998). 피복재료학 [Textile materials]. Seoul: Jeongmunsa.
• Korea Federation of Textile Industries. (1997). 섬유연감 '97 [Textile yearbook '97]. Seoul: Jeongmunsa.
3) When quoting from a dictionary, encyclopedia, or book without an author: Include the title of the book in italics in place of the author's name.
• Merriam-Webster's collegiate dictionary (10th ed.). (1993). Springfield, MA: Merriam-Webster.
• Dictionary of fashion (Rev. ed.). (1995). Seoul: Jeongmunsa.
4) When quoting the contents of a specific heading in an authorless dictionary or encyclopedia: Record the heading instead of the author's name.
• Culture shock. (2004). In The Concise Corsini Encyclopedia of Psychology and Behavioral Science. Retrieved from http://www.credoreference.com/entry/wileypsych/culture_shock
→ Citing in text: ("Culture shock," 2004) …
5) For translations: If the name of the author is listed on the title page, include the name of the author and then the publication year of the translation in parenthesis, followed by the book title.
• Laplace, P. S. (1951). A philosophical essay on probabilities (F. W. Truscott & F. L. Emory, Trans.). New York: Dover. (Original work published 1814)
→ Citing in text: Laplace(1814/1951) …
• Shakespeare, W. (1994). Hamlet (J. C. Choi, Trans.). Shakespeare Series, 2. Seoul: Mineumsa. (Original work published 1601)
→ Citing in text: Shakespeare(1601/1994) …
4. For an article or a chapter included in the compilation: Author Name (Year). Title of the article/chapter, In Editor's name (Ed.), Book Title (page number), City and country of Publication: Publisher.
• Massaro, D. (1992). Broadening the domain of the fuzzy logical model of perception. In H. L. Pick Jr., P. van den Broek, & D. C. Knill (Eds.), Cognition: Conceptual and methodological issues (pp. 51−84). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
However, an article in a volume from a series should list the Author(s) name (publication date). Article title, In Series editor (Series Ed.) & Volume editor (Volume Ed.), Series title, Volume number, Volume title (edition, pages). City and Country of publication: Publisher.
• Maccoby, E. E., & Martin, J. (1983). Socialization in the context of family: Parent-child interaction. In P. H. Mussen (Series Ed.) & E. M. Hetherington (Vol. Ed.), Handbook of child psychology: Vol. 4. Socialization, personality, and social development (4th ed., pp. 1−101). New York: Wiley.
5. When citing a conference presentation:
1) Unpublished proceedings:
• Lanktree, C., & Briere, J. (1991, January). Early data on the Trauma Symptom Checklist for Children (TSC-C). Paper presented at the meeting of the American Professional Society on the Abuse of Children, San Diego, CA.
• Lee, J. H., Choi, H. S., & Do, W. H. (2002, April). Fitness and physical properties in current stretch fabrics for bottoms-Focused on the tight skirt-. Paper presented at the Korean Society of Clothing and Textiles Spring Conference, Daejeon.
2) Published proceedings: Author name. (Year of publication). Title of Paper. Title of Publication, Country.
• Cynx, J., Williams, H., & Nottebohm, F. (1992). Hemispheric differences in avian song discrimination. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA, 89, 1372−1375.
• Kim, C. S., & Park, Y. H. (2002). Analysis of consumer preference on domestic sportswear trend. Proceedings of the Korean Society of Clothing and Textiles, Fall Conference, Korea, 33.
6. Thesis and dissertations: Author Name (Thesis year). Title (Unpublished doctoral dissertation or master's thesis). Name of university, University location.
• Wilfley, D. E. (1989). Interpersonal analysis of bulimia: Normal-weight and obese (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). University of Missouri, Columbia, USA.
• Choi, Y. H. (1999). Influence of first impression on employment (Unpublished master's thesis). Hanguk University, Seoul.
7. When citing a general website article with an author: Include the entire URL.
1) Website with an author, date of publication, and title: Author name (publication year, month, day). Document title. Site title. Retrieved from [URL of the site referenced].
• Parker, T. (2008, May 6). Psychiatry handbook linked to drug industry. The New York Times. Retrieved from http://well.blogs.nytimes.com
• Kim, J. W. (2010, December 12). 백제금동대향로 [Gilt-bronze incense burner of Baekje]. Naver. Retrieved from http://navercast.naver.com/contents.nhn?contents_id=4271
2) For websites without a publication date: Put 'n.d.' in parenthesis.
3) When citing multiple materials from the same website that do not have titles of individual documents,
• Firstview Korea (n.d.-a). …
• Firstview Korea (n.d.-b). …
4) Insert the format of the Internet material (e.g. Book review, eBook, Data file, PDF document, etc.) in brackets ([ ]) after the title. Provide as much detailed information as possible.
• Zacharek, S. (2008, April 27). Natural women [Book review]. The New York Times. Retrieved from http:// www.nytimes.com/2008/04/27/books/review/Zachareck-t.html?pagew anted=2
8. Legal Provisions
1) When citing court cases: List in accordance with the style of the Supreme Court and the Constitutional Court.
• Lessard v. Schmidt, 349 F. Supp. 1078 (E. D. Wis. 1972).
• Durflinger v. Artiles, 563 F. Supp. 322 (D. Kan. 1981), aff'd, 727 F.2d 888 (10th Cir. 1984).
• Verdict: Supreme Court ○○○○, ○○, ○○, Sentence, ○○◇○○, Judgment
2) For statutes (bills passed by Congress or a state legislature and signed into law), write the name of the law in「 」
•「Mental Health Systems Act」. (1988). 42 U.S.C. § 9401.
•「The Law on Assembly and Demonstration」. (2007). Article 3 Section 1.
•「Act on the Protection of Information and Communications Infrastructure」. (2008). Article 5 Section 2.
9. Patents: Describe the official source of the patent owner's name and patent information.
• Smith, I. M. (1988). U.S. Patent No. 123,445. Washington, DC: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office.
• Kim, J. T. (2004). Paper made out of hemp and the manufacturing method, Korea Patent No. 2004-0012216. Daejeon: Korean Intellectual Property Office.
10. For Audio-visual materials: Author (year). Title [CD-ROM or Motion picture]. Country of Publication: Publisher. The first letter of the CD-ROM title and book title should be capitalized.
• National Folk Museum of Korea (Ed.) (2005). Bracelet, an illustrated book of history and culture the Korean people: Clothing habits [CD-ROM]. Republic of Korea: National Folk Museum of Korea.
• Smith, J. D. (Producer) & Smithee, A. F. (Director). (2001). Really big disaster movie [Motion picture]. U.S.: Paramount Pictures.
11. For classical materials:
1) When citing facsimile editions of classical manuscripts without an author: Book title (Year of facsimile edition publication). (Facsimile edition publishing house, edition number). Facsimile edition publication location: Publisher. (Year of publication of the classical document).
• 국조오례의 [Gukjo-oryeui]. (1979). (Kyungmoonsa, Reprint). Seoul: Kyungmoonsa. (Original work published 1474)
2) For facsimile editions of classical manuscripts with no published year: Author name (Year of facsimile edition publication). Book title (Facsimile edition publishing house, edition number). Facsimile edition publication location: Publisher. (Estimated date of publication of the old document or n.d.).
3) For old documents without publisher: Author name. (Year of publication). Book title.
• Park, M. S. (1749). 국혼정례 [Kuk Hon Geong Rea].
4) Classical materials available on the Internet
For classical document series: Include the main URL of the classical document.
• National Institute of Korean History. (2005-2015). 朝鮮王朝實錄 [The annals of the Joseon dynasty]. Retrieved from http://sillok.history.go.kr/main/main.jsp